International American Council

International American Council
Middle East and North Africa

Middle East and Muslims

Iran

Iran

Official name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Capital city: Tehran – population approximately 7.5 million

Area: 1.648 million square kilometers (636,296 square miles)

Population: 77.3 million

People: The majority are Persian, but there is a significant Azeri minority. Other ethnic groups include Kurds, Arabs, Lurs, Baluchis and Turkmen

Language: Persian (Farsi) is the national language. Azeri is the next most widely spoken language – most Azeri speakers living in the northwest around Tabriz. Other minority languages include Kurdish, Arabic, Luri and Baluchi

Religion: The official religion is Shi’a Islam. The majority of the population are Muslims, approximately 89% are Shi’a, 10% are Sunni, mainly Kurds. The rest are mainly Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian or Bahá’í

Currency: Iranian rials (10 rials = 1 toman)

Government type: Unitary Islamic republic

U.S. – Iran relations:

The United States and Iran had diplomatic, economic and political relationships from 1880 until 1979, when the Islamic Republic of Iran changed its policies dramatically and occupied the American embassy in Tehran by taking 52 American diplomats hostage for 444 days. The Islamic Republic of Iran heavily restricted laws on women rights, freedom of speech, press, and assembly. Additionally, the disclosure of the nuclear proliferation center in Natanz and Arak raised international outcry on Iran’s ambitions in reaching nuclear power. The U.S. also has concerns about Iran’s sponsorship of terrorism and human rights record.

 

Reference: U.S. State Department

Israel

Israel

Official name:  State of Israel

Capital city: Jerusalem. Other cities – Tel Aviv, Haifa, Beersheba

Area: pre-1967 borders : 21,000 square kilometers  (8,250 square miles)

Population: 7.5 million

People: Jews (76%), Muslims (16.1%), Christians (3.4%), and Druze

Languages: Hebrew, Arabic. English and Russian widely spoken

Religions: Judaism, Islam, and Christianity

Currency: New Israeli shekel (NIS)

Government type: Parliamentary democracy

U.S. – Israel relations:

Since the funding of the state of Israel in 1948, the United States’ commitment to Israel’s security and development has been a crucial element. Both the United States and Israel encourage democratic systems of governance and protection of human and women rights in the region. The United States and Israel have bilateral economic, strategic, diplomatic, political, and scientific relationships, implemented through organizations such as the Binational Science Foundation, the Binational Agricultural Research Joint Economic Development Group, and Joint Counterterrorism Group.

 

Reference: U.S. State Department

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Official name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Capital city: Kabul. Other main cities are Herat, Jalalabad, Kandahar and Mazar-e Sharif

Area: 652,230 square kilometers (251,745 square miles)

Population: Estimated to be 30 million (UN) with an estimated total of two million refugees in Pakistan and 915,000 in Iran (UNHCR)

People: The population comprises of numerous ethnic groups, the major ones being Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen and Balochs

Languages: Dari (related to Farsi) and Pashto

Religions: Approximately 99% Islam – around 80% of whom are Sunni Muslim

Currency: The Afghani

Government type: Islamic republic

U.S. – Afghanistan relations:

The United States has made a commitment to assist the government of Afghanistan and Afghan people by providing resources and expertise to Afghanistan in a variety of areas, including humanitarian relief and assistance, capacity-building, security needs, counter-narcotic programs, and infrastructure projects. Additionally, the United States encourages the government of Afghanistan to combat corruption, and building upon democratic reforms, including a commitment to women rights and better governance.

Afghanistan and United States are both members of international institutions, including the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, and World Bank. Moreover, Afghanistan has previously signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement with the United States.

 

Reference: U.S. State Department

 

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Official name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Capital city: Riyadh

Area: 2,149,000 square kilometers (870,000 square miles)

Population: 29 million

People: Arabs; 8.5 million of the total population are foreigners

Languages: The official language is Arabic, although English is widely spoken in business.

Religions: Islam; about 90% of the Muslim population is Sunni and 10% is Shi’a. Publicly practicing any other religion is illegal

Currency: Saudi riyal (SR)

Government type: Unitary Islamic absolute monarchy

U.S. – Saudi Arabia relations:

The United States and Saudi Arabia established full diplomatic relations in 1940. Saudi Arabia’s unique role in the Arab and Islamic worlds, its possession of the world’s largest reserves of oil, and its strategic location make its friendship important to the United States. The two countries share common concerns and consult closely on regional security, oil exports and imports, and sustainable development, including issues such as the Middle East peace process and shared interests in the Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia is a strong partner in counterterrorism efforts, providing military, diplomatic, and financial cooperation. It works closely with U.S. law enforcement to safeguard both countries’ national security interests.

 

Reference: U.S. State Department 

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English

Iran

Iran

Official name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Capital city: Tehran – population approximately 7.5 million

Area: 1.648 million square kilometers (636,296 square miles)

Population: 77.3 million

People: The majority are Persian, but there is a significant Azeri minority. Other ethnic groups include Kurds, Arabs, Lurs, Baluchis and Turkmen

Language: Persian (Farsi) is the national language. Azeri is the next most widely spoken language – most Azeri speakers living in the northwest around Tabriz. Other minority languages include Kurdish, Arabic, Luri and Baluchi

Religion: The official religion is Shi’a Islam. The majority of the population are Muslims, approximately 89% are Shi’a, 10% are Sunni, mainly Kurds. The rest are mainly Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian or Bahá’í

Currency: Iranian rials (10 rials = 1 toman)

Government type: Unitary Islamic republic

U.S. – Iran relations:

The United States and Iran had diplomatic, economic and political relationships from 1880 until 1979, when the Islamic Republic of Iran changed its policies dramatically and occupied the American embassy in Tehran by taking 52 American diplomats hostage for 444 days. The Islamic Republic of Iran heavily restricted laws on women rights, freedom of speech, press, and assembly. Additionally, the disclosure of the nuclear proliferation center in Natanz and Arak raised international outcry on Iran’s ambitions in reaching nuclear power. The U.S. also has concerns about Iran’s sponsorship of terrorism and human rights record.

 

Reference: U.S. State Department

More in English

عربي

المملكة العربية السعودية

المملكة العربية السعودية

العربية السعودية

المنطقة: 2.15 مليون كيلومتر مربع

السكان: 28 مليون نسمة (الأمم المتحدة، 2011)

العاصمة: الرياض

الناس: العرب؛ 8.5m من مجموع السكان هم من الأجانب.

اللغات: اللغة الرسمية هي اللغة العربية، على الرغم من اللغة الإنجليزية هي شائعة في دوائر الأعمال.

الدين: الإسلام؛ حوالي 90٪ من السكان مسلم من السنة والشيعة هو 10٪. ممارسة دين آخر علنا أي غير قانوني

العملة: الريال السعودي (SR)

الحكومة: ملكية مطلقة الإسلامية

منذ عام 1940، وكان لدي الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية والمملكة العربية السعودية  العلاقات الدبلوماسية،  الاقتصادية، والسياسية  و حيث أنها یشتركو بأهداف المشتركة للتنمية المستدامة، صادرات النفط وواردات، والعسكرية، والتعاون الدبلوماسي والمال.
المملكة العربية السعودية لديها أكبر احتياطيات نفطية في العالم.  أكبر شريك  للمملكة العربية السعودية التجارة هي الولايات المتحدة.

More in Arabic

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